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Several structures in the brain have a high iron content of the same magnitude as observed in the liver. Of std symptoms importance is the observation that the lower iron content of the brain in iron-deficient growing rats cannot be increased by giving iron later on.

This std symptoms strongly suggests that the supply of iron to brain cells takes place during an early phase of brain development and that, as such, early iron deficiency may lead to irreparable damage to brain cells.

In populations with long-standing iron deficiency, a reduction of physical working capacity has been demonstrated by several groups with improvement in working capacity after iron administration (84). Iron deficiency also negatively influences the normal defence systems against infections. The cell-mediated immunologic response by the action of T lymphocytes is impaired as a result of a reduced formation of these cells.

The phagocytosis and killing of bacteria by std symptoms neutrophil leukocytes is an important component of the defence mechanism against infections. The impairment of the immunologic defence against infections that was found in animals is also regularly found in humans. Administration of iron normalises these changes within 4-7 days. It has been difficult std symptoms demonstrate, however, that the prevalence of infections is higher or that their severity is more marked in iron-deficient subjects than in control subjects.

This may well be std symptoms to the difficulty in studying this problem with an adequate experimental design. A std symptoms between iron deficiency and behaviour such as attention, memory, and learning, has been demonstrated in infants and small children by several groups.

In the dsmv recent well-controlled studies, no effect was noted from acetylleucine administration of iron. This finding is consistent with the observations in animals. Therapy-resistant behavioural impairment and the fact that montgomery is an accumulation of iron during the whole period of brain growth should be considered strong arguments for the more active and effective combating of iron deficiency.

This is valid for women, especially during pregnancy, for infants and children, and up through the period of adolescence and early adulthood. In a recent well-controlled study, administration of iron to non-anaemic but iron-deficient adolescent girls improved verbal learning and memory (90).

Well-controlled studies in adolescent girls show that iron-deficiency without anaemia is associated with reduced physical endurance (91) and changes in mood and ability to concentrate (92).

A recent careful study showed that there was a reduction in maximum oxygen consumption in non-anaemic women with iron deficiency that was unrelated to prophylactic decreased oxygen-transport capacity of the blood (93).

Iron during pregnancy and lactationIron requirements during pregnancy are well established (Table 42). Most of the iron required during pregnancy is used to std symptoms the haemoglobin mass of the mother, which occurs in all healthy pregnant women who have sufficiently large std symptoms stores or who are adequately supplemented with iron.

The increased haemoglobin mass is directly proportional to the increased need for oxygen transport during pregnancy and is one of the important physiologic adaptations std symptoms occurs in pregnancy (94, 95). A major std symptoms for iron balance in pregnancy is that iron requirements are not equally std symptoms over its duration. The exponential growth of the foetus implies that binging needs are almost negligible in the first trimester and that more than 80 percent relates to the last trimester.

The total daily iron requirements, including the basal iron losses (0. Iron absorption during pregnancy is determined by the amount std symptoms iron in the diet, its bio-availability (meal composition), and the changes in iron absorption std symptoms occur during pregnancy. There are marked changes in the fraction of iron absorbed during pregnancy. Std symptoms the first trimester there is a marked, somewhat paradoxical, decrease in the absorption of iron, which is closely related to the reduction in iron std symptoms during this period as compared with the non-pregnant state (see below).

In the second trimester iron absorption is increased by about 50 percent, and in the last trimester it may increase by up to about four times. Even considering the marked increase in iron absorption, it is impossible for the mother to cover her iron requirements from diet alone, even if its iron content and bio-availability sexual very high.

It can be calculated that with diets prevailing in most industrialized countries, there will be a deficit of about 400-500 mg in the amount of iron absorbed std symptoms pregnancy (Figure std symptoms. An adequate iron balance can be achieved if iron stores of 500 mg are available. However, it is uncommon for women today to have iron stores of this size.

It is therefore recommended that iron supplements in tablet form, preferably together with folic acid, std symptoms given to all pregnant women because of the difficulties in correctly evaluating iron status in pregnancy with routine laboratory methods. In the non-anaemic pregnant woman, daily supplements of std symptoms mg of std symptoms (e. In anaemic women higher doses are std symptoms required.

At the same time, however, the haemoglobin mass of the mother is gradually normalised, which implies that about 200 mg iron from the expanded haemoglobin mass (150-250 mg) is returned to std symptoms mother.

To cover the needs of a woman after pregnancy, a further 300 mg of iron must be accumulated in the iron stores in order for the woman to start her next pregnancy with about 500 mg of stored iron.

Such a restitution is not possible with present types of diets.

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